Risk Factors of Whiplash

Meimaris Sports Chiropractic

Rear impact collision[1] 

Female gender[2]                                    

Limited range of motion[3]

Neurological signs and symptoms[4]

Loss of cervical curve[5]

History of spondylosis[6]

Front seat position[7]

Unaware of impending collision[8]

Head rotation during collision[9]

Non-failure of seat back[10]

Use of shoulder harness/seatbelt[11]

Poor head restraint geometry[12]

Ramping of head on headrest[13]

If you have been in a car accident, specifically a rear end collision,  and experienced one of the following risk factors or are not sure if you have or not, contact my office. 

(201) 487-3131                   Dr. Meimaris


[1] Deans, GT, Magalliard, JN, Kerr, M, Rutherford, WH: Neck sprain—a major cause of disability following car accidents.  Injury  18:10-12, 1987.

[2] Pearce, JMS: Whiplash injury: a reappraisal.  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery Psychiatry  52:1329-1331, 1989

[3] Norris, SH, Watt I: The prognosis of neck injuries resulting from rear end collisions.  Journal of Bone Joint Surgery 65B(5):608-611, 1983.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Maimaris C, Barnes MR, Allen, MJ:  ‘Whiplash injuries’ of the neck: a retrospective study.  Injury, 19(5):393-396, 1988.

[7] Otte, D, Rether, JR: Risks and mechanisms of injuries to the cervical spine in traffic accidents.  International IRCOBI/AAAM Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Goetborg, Sweden, 17-31, 1985.

[8] States, JD, Balcerak, JD, Williams, JS et al.: Injury frequency and head restraint effectiveness in rear end impact accidents.  In Proceedings of the 16th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Detroit, MI, 228-257, 1972.

[9] Dvorak, J  Panjabi, MM:  Functional anatomy of the alar ligaments.  Spine  12(2):186-189, 1987.

[10] Patrick, LM: Neck injury incidence, mechanisms and protection. 31st Annual Proceedings of the American Association for Automotive Medicine,  September 28-30, 1987, New Orleans, Louisiana, 409-431, 1987.

[11] Bourbeau, R, Desjardins, D, Maag, U, Laberge-Nadeau, C: Neck injuries among belted belted and unbelted occupants of the front seat of cars.  Journal of Trauma, 35(5):794-799, 1993.

[12] Olsson, I,  Bunkertorp, O, Carlsson, G, et al.: An in-depth study of neck injuries in rear end collisions.  1990 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Bron, Lyon, France, September 12-14,1-15, 1990.

[13] Foreman, Stephen M., Croft, Arthur C.,  Whiplash Injuries: The cervical acceleration/deceleration syndrome, 3rd ed. 69-71.  Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

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